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English chemist and photographic chemical supplier

Jonathan Fallowfield was born in 1835 and established himself as a chemist. By 1856 he was advertising as a ‘photographic chemical and material warehouse.’ From the early 1870s the business primarily sold cameras and photographic materials for use with the wet-collodion and, later, dry plate processes offering professional and studio equipment such as portrait cameras and carte- de-visite lenses. In 1885 the Fallowfield premises and business was valued at £18,000. Jonathan Fallowfield had a reputation for hard work and he recalled that dur- ing one period of twenty-four years he only took one week’s holiday. He died in London on 23 February 1920 leaving an estate of £51,360 13s 7d.
In 1888 the business was purchased by F W Hindley (1856–1925) who significantly expanded its retail ac- tivities and in 1890 the business moved to 146 Charing Cross Road, London, where it remained until 1923. From the early 1890s the firm expanded the range of equipment offered by it and commissioned products which it retailed under its own name, most significantly the Facile camera patented by Frank Miall in 1889, which was produced in several models until the end of the 1890s. It is unlikely that it undertook any extensive manufacturing on it’s own account.
After the 1919 the firm concentrated on retailing equipment made by the major equipment and sensitised materials manufacturers and its own brand cameras and equipment disappeared. Jonathan Fallowfield became a limited company in 1921 and by the 1930s the firm had diversified into selling radio equipment. During the 1950s it began to concentrate on British wholesale and export orders only.
The company remained a wholesale photographic
business becoming part Sangers Photographics Whole- sale Ltd in 1987 and Sangers Ltd in 1996. The Fallow- field company exists in name only as part of Quadnetics Group plc.

French photographer

Constant Alexandre Famin (sometimes confused with Charles Famin, a painter) was a French photographer who operated two studios in Paris (5, rue de Fleurus; 20, av. d’Orléans). Famin primarily photographed land- scape and rural subjects, and was among the group of photographers to work in the forest of Fontainebleau and its environs in the late 1850s, 1860s, and 1870s. His rural photographs, and in particular his studies of peasants and farm animals, may have been intended as aids for painters, but even among these, Famin’s eye for complex, intriguing composition and his sharply detailed prints distinguish his work from that of other photographers of rural life. He also appears to have made architectural photographs at Bourges and Paris. The bulk of Famin’s known work is represented in the Bibliotheque Nationale, Paris, where, under the rule of the Dépôt Légal, he made two large deposits of his work in 1863 and 1874. Though he primarily produced albumen prints from collodion negatives, a group of stereoscopes deposited in 1859 at the Bibliothèque Nationale, Paris, under the name J. Tongue but now thought to be by Famin, suggests a greater diversity to his output than previously acknowledged.

FARADAY, MICHAEL (1791–1867)
Michael Faraday was closely associated with some of the most important pioneers of photography. He worked hard to improve Britain’s glass production, es- pecially important for large lenses. He also discovered phenomena related to the optical behavior of materials that became of use in the 20th century. He is, however, more remembered as the single person most respon- sible for the modern technology for the generation and management of electric power. He also made many contributions to chemistry. But his greatest importance for photography was arguably his work on the relation between electricity and magnetism. While this was fun- damental to the generation of electric power it was also the basis on which James Clerk Maxwell (1831–1879) built his theory of electromagnetic waves, which ex- plains much of the behavior of light and its relatives, radio waves, infrared, microwaves, ultraviolet, x-rays and gamma-rays.
Faraday was born to a father who was in trade as a blacksmith, and had a short term of formal education, which included essentially no mathematics. He appren- ticed to a bookbinder at age 13 and became increasingly interested in chemistry and electricity. Eventually he was able to construct experimental equipment, based on what he had read, using extremely simple materials. By 1812 he had constructed, for example, a machine to generate static electricity and accumulate an electric charge, as well as a voltaic pile, what we would now call a battery.
In the winter of 1810–11 Faraday attended a series of public lectures on chemistry. He took careful notes, which he illustrated. He presented these to his employer, and not long after a patron of the store noticed them and took Faraday to a public lecture at the Royal Insti- tution by its laboratory director, Sir Humphrey Davy (1778–1829), one of the most well known physicists of the time. Faraday was enthralled, and when his ap- prenticeship was up some months later he handed his notes of the talks to Davy and requested employment as Davy’s assistant. Some months later Faraday was hired and began his career at the Royal Institution, his main affiliation until his death.
A year after Faraday was hired he accompanied Davy on a tour of major science laboratories on the Continent. Faraday met scientists in Germany, France and Italy, including Ampere, Humboldt, Gay-Lussac, and Volta, the inventor of the voltaic pile. The people he met he remained in contact with upon his return to the Royal Institution.
The Royal Institution was a learned society es- tablished in 1799 to promote organized research and disseminate new knowledge. The former goal was supported by the creation of a laboratory and a set of research professorships, and a major research library.
The diffusion of knowledge was to be carried out both by courses offered by the research professors. Faraday founded a series of six talks at Christmas time for juve- niles and carried them out himself for 19 years.
Faraday’s work for the first several years was largely in chemistry. He performed analyses for Davy and pub- lished a number of short papers on them.
In 1820 Oersted, a Danish physicist discovered that an electric current flowing in a wire would orient a compass needle at right angles to the wire. Repeating Oersted’s experiment re excited Faraday’s interest in electricity and magnetism, one which he eventually became heavily involved with.
In 1821 Faraday married Sarah Barnard. He applied for and received an addition to his rooms in the Royal Institution. The couple occupied these rooms for the rest of his career.
The same year he showed that a magnetic needle could be made to rotate around a wire carrying an elec- tric current. This is the principle of the electric motor, though it took some years for practical designs to follow, mostly because no source of large amounts of electric power existed. Such sources awaited Faraday’s discov- ery of the electric generator idea a decade later.
In the years immediately following he performed mostly chemical experiments, including the 1825 dis- covery of Benzol, which later became the basis of a number of the aniline dyes, which still later came into use as photographic sensitizing dyes.
Faraday became involved with glass production in the following way. In the early 1800s the British had domi- nated the supply of high quality optical glass and the instruments, such as camera obscuras, telescopes and microscopes, made from it. But in the 1810s and twen- ties a new supplier, a young German named Fraunhofer, began to produce much better glass of considerably larger diameters, and through using the glass in large prisms discovered that the spectrum of the Sun was a rainbow crossed by dark lines at fixed colors (founding modern spectroscopy). These lines in turn he was able to use as high precision sign posts to measure the qual- ity of his glass, and to give it precise specifications for his customers. Fraunhofer became the world leader in supplying large lenses and prisms.
This naturally concerned the British and the Joint Committee of the Board of Longitude and the Royal Society for the Improvement of Glass for Optical Purposes was established in 1824. It at first included a number of well-known physicists, such as Humphrey Davy, Thomas Young, and Sir John Herschel as well as lens maker George Dolland and glassmakers Pellat and Green were added. Faraday was engaged to do a chemical analysis of samples of Fraunhofer’s glass. This he did and handed the derived compositions to the glassmakers, working on the assumption that this



The Yearbook of Photography was published by the weekly periodical Photographic News and was usually edited by that publication’s editor. It was for many years the alternative to the British Journal of Photography’s Photographic Almanac (1859–1963) but never quite grew in the same way or gained the same following. By 1894 the Almanac numbered 1336 pages against the Yearbook’s 612 pages. It remains important as there were advertisers who only took space with one publication and the editorial content provides a useful alternative to the Almanac.
The Yearbook first appeared as the Photographic News Almanac, known as Almanack in 1859, or the Year Book of Photography in 1859 a title that it kept until 1863. The 1859 Almanack was published on 10 December 1858 at a cost of 6d and described in the Photographic News of 17 December 1858 (177). The intention is to ‘disseminate useful and important infor- mation, alike to the practised operator and amateur... It will be found to be of the greatest assistance not only to the private amateur, but also to the professional photographer; to the former, on account of the numer- ous hints it contains, which if attended to, will ensure success under the most unfavourable circumstances; and to the latter, for the information on subjects which are so liable to escape memory.’
It became the Yearbook of Photography and Pho- tographic News Almanac in 1864 and last appeared with the 1907/08 edition after which it’s parent, the Photographic News, was absorbed by Amateur Pho- tographer.
The original Almanack absorbed William Lay’s Pho- tographic Almanac and Ready Reckoner for the Year of Our Lord 1859 which appeared for one year only. It was incorporated into the second volume of the Photo- graphic News Almanac for 1860. Lay’s Almanac and the
first issue of the Photographic News Almanac lay claim as the world’s earliest photographic almanacs.
The first editor was G. Wharton Simpson (1825– 1880) who remained in that position until the 1880 edition; H. Baden Pritchard (1841–1884) edited the years 1881–1884; Thomas Bolas (1848–1932) ed- ited 1885–1889; T. C. Hepworth (died 1905) edited 1892–1893; E. J. Wall (died 1928) edited 1897-1898; Percy R. Salmon (died 1959) edited 1901–1905 and F. J. Mortimer (1874–1944) edited 1906–1908. The missing years were not credited.
The content of the Yearbook was remarkably constant over its history from the 1859 Photographic Almanac. The editorial pages usually began with a calendar for the year and astronomical information, followed by a list of the principal photographic societies and their officers for Great Britain. A review of advances within photog- raphy for the previous year provided a useful survey of new processes, apparatus and survey of the profession as well as the principal deaths for the year. This was followed by an extensive list of photographic processes and formulae. A number of essays by noted amateur and professional photographers on practical aspects of photography completed the book. In, for example, the 1866 volume the essays included J. H. Dallmeyer on lenses, Jabez Hughes on constructing a photographic darkroom, Rejlander reflecting on photography and art, Thomas Richard Williams on portraiture and Henry Peach Robinson on managing sitters amongst others. All volumes contained substantial advertisement sections. In later volumes the amount of formulaic information was reduced to make way for surveys of new equipment and a trade directory. The essays during the 1880s and 1890s began to become more technical in nature reflecting the editors’ own interests and the general editorial slant of the Photographic News.

Japanese painter, photographer

The Japanese photographer Yokoyama Matsusaburo was born in Etorofu Island (now disputed territory with Rus- sia), but spent his childhood in the port city of Hakodate. His lifelong love was painting, but when Commodore Perry’s ships visited Hakodate in 1854, Yokoyama was intrigued by the photography of Eliphalet Brown. This interest was reinforced when, later that year, the Russian photographer Aleksandr Mozhaiskii took daguerreo- types of the streets of Hakodate. Thinking that mastery of photography would help him to become a better artist, he traveled to Yokohama and studied under Shimooka Renjo. Returning to Hakodate his technique was further refined by the Russian consul and amateur photographer, Iosif Goshkevich. In 1868, Yokoyama opened his own lavish studio in Tokyo. In 1871 he famously photo- graphed the partially destroyed Edo Castle, and in 1873 Japanese art works destined for the Vienna Exposition. In the same year he began to concentrate on teaching art and photography students at his studio. In 1876 he gave up his studio and taught photography and photolithog- raphy at the Japan Military Academy until 1881. There he experimented with printing techniques and developed a form of photographic oil painting, shashin abura-e. In 1882 he contracted tuberculosis and spent the last two years of his life painting (particularly photographic oil painting) and immersing himself in a photolithography company which he founded. [Examples of Yokoyama’s work can be found in the Tokyo Metropolitan Museum of Photography, Tokyo.]

YORK, FREDERICK (1823–1903)
Lantern slide manufacturer

York was born at Bridgwater, Somerset, England, in 1823. At 16 he was apprenticed to a Bristol pharmacist,
where he came into contact with the new art of photog- raphy. He established and ran a photographic business in South Africa, 1853–1861. Returning to England, in 1863 he set up a stereoview and lantern slide business at 87 (later at 67) Lancaster Road, Notting Hill, London. The firm soon concentrated on photographic slides, and son William joined the business in 1877. York & Son’s slides, by the 1890s over 100,000 per year, were manufactured in Bridgwater. Subjects included Travel, Comic, Science, Education, and Life Models. Travel scenes were produced with negatives ‘bought-in’ from other photographers. Life Model sets were photographed by the York company, whose only serious competition in this genre was Bamforth & Co. Costumed ‘actors’ posed in front of painted backdrops or, occasionally, exterior scenes to create a series of tableaux. Many scenes were photographed in a garden studio at Lancaster Road. Themes included temperance, popular songs, services of song, and ‘tearjerker’ stories. After Frederick York’s death in 1903 William carried on, but the firm was dis- solved in 1907. Newton & Co used the York name until the late 1940s.

YOUNG, THOMAS (1773–1829)
English physician and natural philosopher

Thomas Young is chiefly acknowledged for providing the decisive arguments against Newton’s particle theory of light, leading eventually to widespread acceptance of the wave or undulatory theory. He also developed theories of interference and three-color composition of light which were important for the development of colour photography. Born 13 June 1773 to a Quaker family in Somerset, Young exhibited a prodigious intellect, studying literature, ancient and modern lan- guages, engineering, chemistry, optics, mathematics and medicine. Having studied at both Edinburgh Uni- versity and at the University of Göttingen, he became widely read in a number of Continental philosophers, including Leonhard Euler. Euler proposed that colors were created by the frequency of vibration in the ether, the longest wavelength corresponding to the red end of the spectrum. Young adapted his own analogies of light and sound to form a defence of a general wave theory of light in 1801. In his publication of 1804, Experiments and Calculations Relative to Physical Optics, Young published proof of the extension of the spectrum into the ‘invisible’ region beyond the violet. Like many investi- gators of light he employed the well-known sensitivity of silver nitrate, casting the image from a solar microscope on strips of paper soaked in the solution. Thomas Young died 10 May 1829 in London.


X-ray photography was one of the most important dis- coveries of the 19th century. Developed in November 1895 by German scientist Willhelm Conrad Röntgen (1845–1923), the x-ray thus straddles the cusp between two centuries. The phenomenon captured the public’s imagination to an extent not experienced; its fascination was not to be eclipsed until the hydrogen bomb in 1945. The aesthetic and theoretical ramifications of x-rays also proved fertile ground for artists seeking new ways to picture inner realities. Röntgen won the first Nobel Prize in Physics in 1901 for his breakthrough, yet declined to seek a patent and remained modest about his remarkable discovery for the rest of his life. Interestingly, Röntgen disliked being photographed, therefore few images of him exist.
Röntgen, like many other researchers of his time, was interested in the nature of cathode rays. To ac- complish his light experiments, he used vacuum glass tubes, commonly known as Crookes tubes after William Crookes, a British scientist who perfected them in the 1870s. Working in the Physical Institute laboratories of the University of Wurzburg, Röntgen studied emissions produced from an electrical current passed between the cathode (negative) and anode (positive) terminals. The cathode rays normally caused the walls of tube or other internal objects to glow, but did not seem to be able to penetrate the glass. Röntgen was astonished when his cardboard shrouded tube caused a barium platinocyanide screen across the room to fluoresce. Placing various objects between the tube and screen, he saw the bones of his hand through his flesh, which he subsequently captured on a photographic plate. What followed was seven straight weeks of intense experimentation. He remarked to a friend, “I have discovered something interesting, but I do not know whether or not my ob- servations are correct.”
On December 28 1895, Röntgen gave a preliminary report to the Physical-Medical society of Wurzburg, and by New Year’s Day he sent copies of his report to colleagues across Europe. Newspapers and magazine quickly picked up the story and by January, the whole world was caught up in x-ray fever. Other non-existent rays were posited—including N-rays, black rays, and Becquerel Rays (later found to be the alpha, beta, and gamma rays produced by radioactive materials). Every imaginable substance, including animals and objects, were exposed. Eager for news of each new photographed organ, cartoonists and poets lauded the humorous new possibilities of seeing people’s thoughts and peering through underwear. By 1896, over 60 articles had been featured in the popular press as well as the first angiography, cinematic x-ray, and military radiology performed.
The first generally-accepted x-ray photograph is that of Mrs. Röntgen’s ringed hand from December 22, 1895. (After learning of the discovery, A.W. Goodspeed and William Jennings recreated one they had made by accident in 1890.) X-rays were seen as extension of the photographer’s craft and were included in many manuals and journals. After Thomas Edison’s invention of the fluoroscope in 1896 (a kind of hooded camera fitted with a screen), many x-rays were performed as demonstrations. People lined up at department stores, high schools, and other public venues to get “bone portraits.” Dubbed “shadow photographs,” X-rays soon after needed no camera, a capacity shared with some of the earliest forms of photography, and no film. Still, the evidentiary nature of a photograph proved irresistible, especially to photographers, scientists, and the press. Eadweard Muybridge made stop action photographs and films of frog’s legs in motion in 1896. Edison even claimed that the rays would eventually show the activity of the human brain.
As x-rays are radiation, they can both diagnose and cure. Enthusiasts, not having a precedent, exposed them- selves regularly to test strength and perform demonstra- tions. Reddening of the nose and hands of practitioners was common. The early decades of the 20th century saw the death of many early pioneers due to numerous amputations and burns resulting from overexposure. It was not until the death of Edison’s assistant in 1904 that the spotless record of the rays began to wear thin. The novelty and pure aesthetics of the rays gave way to medical applications—both legitimate and illegiti- mate. Medical schools added x-rays to their curricula; likewise, correspondence courses offered programs for photographers and electricians to gain training in “Röntgenology.” “Do-it-yourself” kits were even sold in popular magazines.
Röntgen initially described x-rays as “longitudinal vibrations in the ether”. The ether was a commonly held scientific hypothesis that a mysterious substance occupied the air and was the media through which waves and a whole host of other as yet inexplicable phenom- ena moved. At the turn of the last century, science and occultism occupied a much closer range than they do today and x-rays were thought by many to give credence to extra-sensory perception and psychic ability. If such non-perceptible spectacles could be captured on a pho- tographic plate, it was argued, so too could thoughts, auras, ghosts, and even the human soul. Philosophically, the discovery of x-rays caused a scientific sea change. No longer did the senses seem an adequate platform for analysis; scientific positivism was at a standstill.
Furthermore, these rays could also kill as well as cure, presenting a medical and moral conundrum.
It was not until the 20th century that x-rays were confirmed to be a part of the electromagnetic spectrum. Röntgen had covered his tube to keep the fluorescent effects contained; yet he found that the new rays could not be reflected, polarized, or refracted. It was later proved that x-rays have shorter wavelengths than visible light (around one billionth of a meter) and are related to radioactivity (discovered in 1896 and later studied by Marie and Pierre Curie). A trained glass blower, C.H.F. Muller was the first to construct commercially viable x-ray tubes and was later granted a patent in 1899. His firm expanded until another company took over in 1927, eventually setting the foundation for the new and improved x-ray apparatus we know today.


Samuel L Walker was one of the earliest daguerreotype photographers in the United States and was widely regarded as one of the best photographers during the 1840s and 1850s. He lived and worked in Poughkeepsie, New York.
Walker was born in 1802 at New Salem, Massa- chusetts, and enjoyed careers as a daguerreotypist and photographer, writer and spiritualist. There is some evidence to suggest Walker was an assistant to Samuel F. B. Morse in New York; he then had a studio in Albany before moving to Poughkeepsie by 1847. He seems to have stopped photographing between 1854 and the early 1860s when wet collodion photography began to supersede the daguerreotype and poor health limited his activities. By May 1864 Walker had returned to photography and was practicing the collodion process in his Photographic Institute.
The only known collection of Walker’s work is held by George Eastman House in Rochester, New York, and the twenty daguerreotypes there consist of portraits including studies of his own children which Sobieszek claims are ‘some of the most exciting images created by the daguerrean artist.’ His daguerreotypes of his daughters are reminiscent of the work of Lewis Carroll in their directness and latent sexuality.
He died on 25 April 1874 aged 72 years when he was described as a man of great artistic taste with a love for his profession.

William H. Walker began making a wooden pocket amateur camera in Rochester from 1880 and by 1883 he was successfully manufacturing dry plates. He gave
up camera making, allowing his former partners to form the Rochester Optical Company which continued with the camera making side of the business.
George Eastman recognising Walker’s skills as a chemist and experience with plate manufacturing of- fered him a job which he accepted from the beginning of 1884. He began work on developing what became the Eastman-Walker roll film holder which allowed a roll of film to be used with any plate camera. The roll holder was patented in Britain on 25 November 1884 and in the United States on 5 May 1885. Through its use of standardized parts it could be mass-produced and was made in Frank Brownell’s works, being placed on the market in 1885. It was produced in eleven different sizes. The roll holder proved popular with the photographic press and with amateur photographers so that by 1888 35 percent of negatives at the London Camera Club’s summer outings were made using it. Rival companies introduced their designs.
Walker, with Eastman, also designed a paper and film coating machine and this, with the roll-holder and the development of a film, was intended to give Eastman’s company a complete system of film photography.
In 1884 Walker became Secretary to the Eastman Dry Plate and Film Company and in 1885 he was sent to London to supervise the company’s European activi- ties, leading to the establishment of the Eastman Photo- graphic Materials Company Ltd which was incorporated in November 1889.
Walker’s relationship with Eastman, which had al- ways been testy, deteriorated and Eastman himself was forced to find a factory site rather than rely on Walker. The Harrow site was purchased, the first for the company outside of Rochester. Walker was not a businessman and Eastman found Walker’s negative attitude and repeated threats to retire tiresome. He finally accepted such a threat and George Dickman was appointed to take over from Walker from January 1893. Eastman soon forced Walker from the company completely.
Walker, a wealthy man from his Kodak stock, died in November 1917.

According to his obituary, Alfred Henry Wall was born in London, date unknown, and had a childhood sufficiently unhappy that he ran away from home and went to work for a time for one of the earliest da- guerreotype studios in the city before joining a theatre company—an activity he would return to for a period in the 1860s.
He opened his own studio in Cheapside c.1850, and another in the Strand (date unknown), but by 1851 was working as a photographic assistant at the Great Exhibition.
Photographic News reported in 1861 that he was working as an itinerant portrait painter under the name of R. A. Seymour, and coincidentally in that year he published A Manual of Artistic Colouring as Applied to Photographs. By 1862 he had returned to commercial photography and opened a studio in London’s West- bourne Grove.
In 1864 and 1865 he published two annual volumes entitled The Art Student which discussed photography as an art form, a subject aired several times since 1859. From 1868 until 1870 he edited The Illustrated Photog- rapher, which described itself as ‘a weekly journal of science and art,’ and his contributions to several con- temporary journals did much to expand understanding of the photographic processes.
Wall’s last photographic book Artistic Landscape Photography was published in 1896.

Edward John Wall was one of the leading writers on the theory and practice of photography in the closing decades of the nineteenth century. His 1889 Dictionary of Photography became a standard reference work and ran to many editions worldwide. Although not published until 1925, his History of Three-Colour Photography was the first reflective look at that subject, drawing on material he had first published in the British Journal of Photography in the early 1900s.
In the closing years of the 19th century he contributed a manual on carbon printing to Amateur Photographer magazine’s One Shilling Library series of books, but one of his most significant contributions to the practice of photography was his published 1907 suggestion for the technique which became known as bromoil print- ing. Wall himself did not fully articulate the mechanics of the process, but his initial suggestions as to how it might work were realised in a practical sense by C Welbourne Piper, who published a working process later that same year.
Trained as a chemist, Wall initially worked for the plate manufacturers B. J. Edwards & Co. in London, before embarking on a career which embraced camera manufacture in the United States with the Blair Cam- era Company, journalism, photography, and motion pictures.

WALTER, CHARLES (CARL) (c. 1831–1907)
Botanist, photographer, journalist
Born in Germany, he emigrated from Mecklenberg, Tokheim, to Victoria, Australia, in c.1856 where he worked as a botanical collector for the Victorian Government Botanist, Baron von Mueller. In 1858, he worled as a photographer and botanical collector, accompanied R.L.J. Ellery’s geodetic survey party into eastern Gippsland.
In 1865, he advertised himself as a “Country Photo- graphic Artist” of 45, Bell Street, Fitzroy, Melbourne, and began supplying photographs and reports of his travels in the bush to The Illustrated Australian News. Much of his early work was concerned with recording portraits of aborigines and he documented the mission stations of Ramahyuck (Lake Wellington), Coranderrk (Yarra Flats) and Lake Tyers. In 1867, he sent portraits of Natives of Victoria to the Anthropological Society of London.
Walter was, perhaps, Australia’s first photojournalist, for as early as 1865 he sent a report of the “Salmon Tanks in Badger Creek” to the Illustrated Australian News. In the following year, he describes a trip overland to “Falls on the Niagara Creek, Mount Torbreck” with his “ap- paratus and tent upon his back—the whole weighing about fifty pounds.”
Walter used a stereoscopic camera for most of his work but also produced some half-plate and whole- plate negatives. He registered photographs with the Victorian Copyright Office in 1870 and in 1871 he advertised “A very large stock of Stereoscopic Views of Aboriginal Life, Mining, Scenery and other Australian Subjects.” The earliest extant photograph by Walter is dated 1862; his work continued to be published until the early 1870s.

The medium of photography was generally accepted as a reflection of reality in the nineteenth-century. In truth, many photographic war scenes were manipulatively staged. At times this was because the artist wanted to reflect what they had seen with their own eyes, but were unable to capture with the camera. The creation of pho- tographs was also incredibly arduous on the battlefield. Lighting had to be ideal, photographic equipment was cumbersome, and plates had to be processed quickly necessitating portable darkrooms. In addition, the slow development of the medium itself made it impossible to produce action photographs.
Even with the assumed veracity of photographic works, photographs were seldom printed in newspapers in the nineteenth-century. More likely they were seen when displayed in galleries, sold in books, or copied by engravers for newspapers. However, often engravers invented scenes of battle that had not been captured by photographers. The development of half-tone printing, which enabled the combining of text with photographs, fueled a rise of photos in papers during the Spanish- American War and Second Boer War at the end of the century.

Early War Photography
The earliest photographs of wartime events come from the end of the Mexican-American War (1836–1848).
These images are not of battle scenes, but rather posed scenes of soldiers. “General Wool and Staff, Calle Real, Saltillo, Mexico,” c. 1840, offers a good example of the kind of choreographed scene frequently produced. Wool’s regiment paused for several minutes to accommodate the exposure time needed for the daguerreotype; one can see that the figures on the left are slightly blurred from having moved. The difficul- ties of obtaining photographic materials, the lengthy preparation time necessary, and the long exposure period for the daguerreotype, made photography rare in this period. Only around fifty photographs survive, and we have no record of specific photographers of the Mexican-American War images.
The first identifiable photographer who took pictures in a wartime environment was John McCosh. McCosh served as a British surgeon during the Second Sikh War (1848–1849) in India and the Second Burma War (1852). Using the calotype, McCosh photographed fellow soldiers, artillery, and ruins. Karl Baptist von Szatmari also exhibited some photographs of a battle between the Russian Army and the Turks in the Paris Exhibition of 1855; an engraving after one of these scenes survives, as do some of the photographs themselves.

Wood and Gibson. Inspection of Troops at Cumberlanding, Pamunkey, Virginia. The J. Paul Getty Museum, Los Angeles © The J. Paul Getty Museum.

Richard Nicklin had been hired by the British military to photograph government-sanctioned scenes of the Crimean War (1853–1856), but the photographer and his two assistants were caught in a hurricane and drowned in Balaclava Harbor in November of 1854. Photographs from other artists such as Gilbert Elliot, and two military officers, ensigns Brandon and Dawson, were also hired by the government to cover the war, but all of their works have since disappeared.
Roger Fenton produced over 350 images of the Crimean War during 1855. Thomas Agnew hired Fenton with aspirations of creating a profitable issue of photos similar to those that the military photographers had been hired to photograph but never produced. Roger Fenton wrote in letters of some of the horrors he witnessed during his time in the Crimean, but his photographs do not reflect the scenes he describes. Rather, Fenton mostly photographed heroic portraits of soldiers, posi- tive scenes of life in the camps, and images of the sur- rounding landscape. Fenton may have felt compelled by Agnew, as well as Queen Victoria with whom the photographer had developed a warm relationship, to photograph encouraging images of the war to try and offset the negative impressions given to the British people by newspaper reporter William Howard Russell. Fenton was also limited by photographic materials of the time which did not yet enable spontaneous action shots. He was also challenged by the collodion wet plate process technique which required speed and virtuosity as he only had short time to develop the plates in his makeshift traveling laboratory after taking a scene.
Fenton’s most recognized war image is one of the few in which he allowed a sense of sadness at the destruction of war to creep into his work. Arriving shortly after the brutal attack of soldiers of the British Light Brigade by the Russians on October 25, 1854, Fenton’s “Valley of the Shadow of Death” showed the infamous valley as a desolate landscape filled with cannon balls. The exhibition of the photograph in 1855, and the popular- ity of Lord Tennyson’s “Charge of the Light Brigade,” written in 1864, marked this event in the memory of the British people.
James Robertson, Felice Beato, Charles Langlois, and Karl Baptist von Szatmari all photographed the final stages of the Crimean War. Of these, the sixty or so photographs taken by Robertson have become the most well known. Robertson’s works showed more scenes of death, destruction, and violence, the kind of subject matter not in the work of Fenton. Although Thomas Agnew & Sons published both Fenton’s and Robertson’s Crimean photographs in 1856, Robertson does not seem restricted by Agnew to shoot only government- favored photos as Fenton had been, perhaps because of Robertson’s other sources of income. In the end, Agnew’s commercial adventure was not as successful as he had hoped. Fenton’s and Robertson’s photographs went on sale, both individually and as sets, as early as November 1855. However, the public had little interest in these images by the end of the war. By the end of
1856, Thomas Agnew & Sons sold all remaining prints and negatives from both photographers at auctions.
After photographing the end of the Crimean War, Felice Beato and James Robertson worked together in Calcutta and photographed the Indian Mutiny, of First War of Independence, of 1857. Beato’s most striking images from this period are scenes of the execution of over 2000 Indian rebels by the British, and those of Secundra Bagh in which he recorded the devastation in the months that followed. In his photographs from the 1850s, Beato is often credited as the first to photograph corpses after a battle. Beato probably choreographed many of these scenes to heighten the dramatic effect, perhaps even excavating and arranging corpses. Beato became the most prolific photographer of war scenes of the Asian world in the nineteenth century including the recording of the Opium War in China (1860) and the Japanese attacks in the Simonaki Straights in September of 1864. Also during this decade, several photographers were sent to the battlefields during the War of the Triple Alliance in South America (1864–1870), in hopes for commercial success. Bate & Co. published Esteban García’s work from this period in sets of ten titled La Guerra Ilustrada. However, it was the American Civil War (1861–1865) that was the first war to be extensively photographed.

1860s/American Civil War
It was the publishers’ awareness of the public’s desire for war scenes that caused the prolific photographic work produced during The American Civil War; at least five hindred photographers accompanied the soldiers of the North. Photographs were then made into engrav- ings to be published in the papers, or sold to E. and H. T. Anthony and Co., who at times issued more than a thousand pictures a day. The photographs themselves would not be viewed by the public until they were dis- played in galleries.
George S. Cook took images right after the fall of Fort Sumter, marking the beginning of the war between North and South. While Cook became one of the few photographers to shoot Confederate subjects, one of his most famous works is of a Federal troop leader, Major Robert Anderson who had been defeated at Fort Sumter. After the war, Cook collected over 10,000 photographs from the war; these are now in the collection of the Valentine Museum in Richmond, Virginia.
However, Matthew B. Brady is the name most syn- onymous with Civil War photography. He determined that he could make a profit organizing photographers to shoot the war and closed most of his galleries which had been highly successful portrait studios for the rich and famous. He had even done several sittings with President Lincoln who credited Brady with helping him win the election with these fine portraits of the President. Brady claimed he was called to the war, “I felt I had to go. A spirit in my feet said ‘go,’ and I went.”
Although suffering from poor eyesight, Brady ini- tially went to the fields and was greeted with distaste from many of the soldiers who suspiciously saw his cam- era as some kind of weapon. Later, he organized other photographers to do most of the actual photographing. However, Brady managed to frequently place himself within photographs of military heroes. Throughout the course of the war, Brady hired over twenty photogra- phers to shoot the troops, battle scenes, and the bodies after the massacres. He organized a complex system of equipping each of the photographers with a portable dark room and stocked chemicals and glass plates at the major battlefields. His team of photographers produced over 7000 negatives during the war.
One of Brady’s best photographers was Alexander Gardner. Gardner followed the Army of the Potomac and captured most of their battles. His first war photo- graphs were exhibited in Brady’s studio in September of 1862 and captured the horrific results of the Battle of Antietam, the bloodiest battle of the war in which 26,000 soldiers were killed or wounded. The gallery received huge crowds desperate to see these first im- ages portraying with veracity the costs of war. These photographs were dramatically realistic in contrast to heroic scenes that had been done of dead soldiers by painters in this period. Gardner showed the actual decay of the corpses and the inhumanity of their deaths. Eight of these photographs were also published in Harper’s Weekly on October 18, 1862.
The New York Times praised the show, “Mr. Brady has done something to bring home to us the terrible real- ity and earnestness of war” and Gardner was disturbed by Brady’s assumed ownership of these photographs. Each photograph was boldly marked with “Brady’s Al- bum Gallery” in contrast to Gardner’s name written in small barely noticeable print. Gardner reacted by taking the negatives of his photographs along with Timothy O’Sullivan and James F. Gibson, some of Brady’s best photographers, and opened his own studio. Once working for himself, some of Gardner’s most intriguing works were those from his series on the execution of the conspirators who plotted the murder of President Lincoln.
Gardner clearly credited the photographers who worked for him in the publication of their work. For ex- ample, Timothy O’Sullivan, while working for Gardner, produced arguably the most famous war photograph, the “Harvest of Death” taken of the battlefield of Get- tysburg. This scene shows a field covered with bodies, highlighting the numerous deaths from this battle. Yet O’Sullivan simultaneously shows the viewer one soldier’s face, his contorted hand in the center of the
photo, bringing a large inconceivable number down to the reality of many individuals. Other soldiers have their clothes partly removed as thieves have already been searching their bodies. The scene achieves the kind of accurate reportage which Gardner supported when he remarked that this photograph by O’Sullivan “conveys a useful moral: it shows the blank horror and reality of war, in opposition to the pageantry.”
Photography also filled a unique role for families who sent their loved ones to battle. Portraits of soldiers were often taken before leaving for the war and make- shift studios were set up in many battlefields enabling soldiers to send home images of themselves. The re- cently developed and inexpensive tintype photographs were particularly popular. It should be highlighted that although a few photographs of African-American troops and the treatment of slaves were taken, the pho- tographic record of this period for African-Americans is minimal in comparison to the copious photographs taken of the war.
Some of the many photographers not discussed in depth in this essay who photographed scenes from The Civil War include: George Barnard, Bergstresser Brothers, Sam Cooley, James Gardner, James Gibson, S.A. Holmes, David Knox, Theodore Lilienthal, Royan Linn, A.D. Lytle, William Pywell, James Reekie, George Rockwood, T.C. Roche, John Scholten, William Mor- ris Smith, Julian Vannerson, David Woodbury, and J. A. Young. Andrew J. Russell is the only photographer during the Civil War to have been paid by the govern- ment.
After the war, photographs of the battlefields were difficult to sell as the public preferred to forget their tragic losses. Alexander Gardner’s Photographic Sketch Book of the Civil War published after the Civil War, which included O’Sullivan’s famous Harvest of Death, had little response. While many photographers struggled, perhaps none suffered more than Brady who had bankrupted himself from his investments to photo- graph the war and ended up destitute and mostly blind. Also after the end of the war, Frank Leslie’s Illustrated Newspaper published images of Southern war camps and malnourished prisoners. Mary Warner Marien dis- cusses the role of the North’s blockade of the South as a cause for the extreme neglect of the prisoners of the Confederacy.

The 1870s and 1880s
During the 1870s and 1880s numerous regional wars took place throughout the globe. However, few photog- raphers recorded these events, as there was little interest in them for purposes of print illustrations. Rather, most newspapers hired artists to sketch dramatic battle scenes believing photography lacked the ability to capture the action. Louis Heller shot images of prisoners which were used, however, for the cover of Frank Leslie’s Illustrated Newspaper, July 12, 1873. Eadweard Muybridge pro- duced some dramatic images of the battle between the Modac Indians and the American Cavalry on the border of Oregon and California in 1872–1873. Muybridge frames individual proud Native Americans as they fight to keep their land; in truth, most of the tribe would be hung when this battle was lost. Bismark’s war against Schleswig-Holstein was photographed by a handful of artists showing mostly views of the destruction of the landscape and corpses. Only negligible photos survive from the Russo-Turkish War (1877–1888).
While James Burke photographed many struggles in Afghanistan, the best are of the Second Afghan War of 1879 in which the British were fighting in the area of Kabul. In one of the most successful battles in Brit- ish military history, their troops numbering only 5000 fought off an attack by over 100,000 Afghans. Although he did not shoot the actual battle, Burke’s photos of the confident British troops a day before the attack were published as engravings in London Graphic. Burke is known for his sweeping views of troop formations placed against the exotic Afghan backdrop.
Few noteworthy photographs survived from the Franco-Prussian War of 1870; however, photography played a crucial role in the siege of Paris. First, bal- loons marked “Daguerre” and “Niépce” were used to drop communications into the surrounded city. Later, photographically reduced text was hidden in small containers tied to the tails of homing pigeons enabling those under siege within the city to communicate with French officials outside. Once they realized the French’s secret weapon, the Prussians used falcons to attack the pigeons.
The Paris Commune ended with Bloody Week (May 21–May 28, 1871), a period in which 25,000 Parisians were killed by the French government. Various Parisians took some particularly intriguing photos of the Com- munards posed prior to and after removing the Vendôme Column, an action that symbolized the removal of Napo- leonic military barbarism. Bruno Braquehais published 109 photographs, which he personally photographed, in a bound album titled Paris During the Commune. Unfortunately, these photographs were later used to identify rebels who were then punished or murdered by the French government. Charles Soulier photographed the city in ruins after the end of the Commune. Eugène Appert fabricated photographs in which he hired actors to stage various scenes from the time of the Commune, and then he would paste in heads of the Communards and reshoot the pasted photo. This handful of contrived images, designed from the perspective of the govern- ment, was compiled into a book called Crimes of the Commune.

The Spanish-American War (April 25–August 12, 1898) is the first war in which photographs of war scenes were quickly disseminated to the public through publication in newspapers. Due to the images in papers owned by Hearst and Pulitzer, Americans saw the atrocities of the Spanish occupation, although often inaccurately reported, and support increased for the Cuban rebel forces. The sinking of the U.S. battleship Maine, on February 15, 1898, in the Cuban harbor of Havana was blamed on the Spanish and fueled the decision by the United States to enter the war on April 25. “Remember the Maine” became a rallying cry as numerous photography firms marketed stereographs of the event; Keystone View Company in particular made a profit from the selling of such images.
Despite the American public interest in this conflict, few photographers were hired to document the battles. However, Jimmy Hare began a career in which he would become known as the paramount photographer of war. Working for Collin’s Magazine and later Collier’s and Leslie’s Weekly, Hare worked in the field during nu- merous twentieth-century wars including World War I. While few of his surviving photographs from this period are remarkable, later he would be credited with being the first modern war photojournalist for his courageous efforts in documenting times of war.
International public opinion on the Second Boer War (1899–1902) was also greatly swayed by photographs of the battles and conditions in South Africa. Much of Europe and the United States supported the seemingly simple people of the Boer republic initially in their battle against Britain. Once realizing the power of the medium, the Boers began taking numerous photos of every as- pect of the war. The Boers encouraged photos of their weaponry, trenches filled with dead British soldiers, and their prisoners including then war correspondent Winston Churchill.
Through manipulation of these and other photo- graphic images, the British used the media to try and persuade the national and international public to sup- port their troops. Horace Nicholls can be credited with shooting some of the most sentimental images during this period, which engendered sympathy for British troops. Nicholls described his desire to shoot and com- pose “photographs which would appeal to the artist sense of the most fastidious, knowing that they must as photographs have the enhanced value of being truthful.” Numerous other photographers were sent to shoot this war, Reinholt Thiele and H.C. Shelley for example, but many scenes were shot by British soldiers and volunteers who brought their own Kodaks to South Africa. The deplorable conditions of British concentration camps, in which 40,000 women and children died of disease and starvation, were undeniable due to the many photo- graphs taken within the camps of the victims.

While many battles from the larger wars were more frequently photographed, photographs also evidence the colonization by Europeans and Americans around the globe. In many countries, photos of famous cultural sights and exotic locales were taken once an area was conquered. Many of these images were used to lure westerners to become settlers in a certain area and to romanticize the prowess of western cultures at explora- tion.
Photography was also utilized as a military tool throughout the second half of the nineteenth century. Most military expeditions had a trained photographer as part of their troops. Some armies maintained an entire unit of photographers. Photographic technology was also used to reproduce maps, study military maneuvers and the terrain, and to train servicemen.
In the majority of battles, photographers were suc- cessful at performing their role as observers of both sides. Yet in some cases photographers were taken as prisoners when suspected of spying for the enemy. In addition, photographers were frequently warned against photographing any military details and could be imprisoned if such images were ever published. Some soldiers felt uncomfortable with the new technology, as discussed above during the American Civil War. Native American warriors, in fact, frequently avoided the camera for fear that the strange contraption would somehow capture their soul.
The time needed to set up the equipment, the slow de- velopment time, and the simple fact that a photographer had to shoot something before them rather than creat- ing it in their mind, made photography a challenging medium to work with in the nineteenth century. Yet, the camera’s seeming ability to capture reality also made the desire to take photographs of battlefields and sol- diers simply irresistible. By World War II, photographs would be the primary source of images for newspapers informing the public about the war.

Born in Albury, New York January 10, 1851, Catherine Barnes traveled with her parents to Russia in 1872. Introduced to photography in 1886, she built her own studio in the attic of her home. She was appointed associate editor of American Amateur Photographer, wrote and lectured extensively on photography, and became known as an advocate for women in photography with her talk “Photography from a woman’s standpoint” (1890). Her appointment as editor was followed by a visit to England, where she was enrolled into the Photographic Society of Great Britain, and married the photographic journalist Henry Snowden Ward (1865–1911).

Together with her husband, Ward edited The Photogram (1894–1905), continued as The Photographic Monthly, and The Process Photogram (1895–1905), continued as The Process Engraver’s Monthly. They collaborated on a series of topographical volumes, with photographs taken by Mrs Ward, including Shakespeare (1896, 1897), Dickens (1903), Chaucer (1904), and Lorna Doane (1908).

Snowden Ward died suddenly in New York in 1911, while on a lecture tour to promote the Dickens centenary. Catherine returned to England, but her health deteriorated, and she died in Hadlow, Kent July 31 1913.


French photographer and writer

Auguste Vacquerie was a very close friend of the Hugos, who considered him as a member of the family. His brother Charles married Leopoldine Hugo, the writer’s elder and beloved daughter. The consorts both drowned in the river Seine near Villequier, in 1843.
After a classical education, he turned to critique and journalismHe co-founded in Paris the political newspa- per L’Évènement, with Paul Meurice, his good friend from College Charlemagne, Charles, and François-Vic- tor Hugo. On the 2nd of December 1851, threatened as a republican and opponent to Napoleon’s dictatorial regime, he left France. Later he moved to Saint-Helier, Jersey Island, with the two Adeles, the wife and daughter of Victor Hugo, who joined them in August 1852. They stayed there till October 31 1855, when they had to move to Saint-Peter-Port, Guernsey Island.
In Jersey, Vacquerie had to adjust to his new condition of exile, as well as the Hugo family. Far away from his busy social life dedicated to political and journalistic activities, he mainly turned to literature. But along with Victor Hugo, Charles and François-Victor, he was part of the Jersey et l’Archipel de la Manche book, a project launched by Victor Hugo, supposedly in two volumes. The first one, rather inexpensive, included poetry writ- ten by Victor Hugo himself. The second volume, more luxurious, was to include texts on Jersey’s history and institutions, and photographs taken by the Hugos sons and Vacquerie. For him, this book was a rather basic work, far from the interest he had at this time in theatre plays. He hoped it would be an opportunity to make money quickly.
Vacquerie greatly admired Delacroix aesthetic and was influenced by the latter’s concept of photography. Vacquerie mostly worked with negatives on paper, which offered more delicate contours. Yet, he used
glass plates as well. Positives were printed on salted paper, a technique he seems to have learnt from Charles Hugo. Not satisfied with his first attempts, he worked hard on improving his technical skills, as witnessed by letters to his friend Paul Meurice or to his family (see unpublished letters to his mother, sister (Mrs Lefèvre) and nephew Ernest Lefèvre, kept at Musée Victor-Hugo at Villequier).
Auguste Vacquerie usually used small size prints (roughly 10 × 7 cm.), organizing his pictures with great attention to harmony, according to curves, light and shadow balances. Although it is hard to discern Charles Hugo’s or Auguste Vacquerie’s authorship when not clearly established, Vacquerie’s portraits end-up as a remarkable set.
Beside Victor Hugo’s portraits, he shot pictures of many exiled people there (like the Le Flô children or Augustine Allix) or visiting friends (Paul Meurice and his wife) that the corresponding French colony in Jersey still looks very vivid. Focusing on details, he brings to life the daily routine of the exile, like Mrs Hugo read- ing Châtiments dressed in a peplum-like drapery, and the passing of the seasons, pictured in close-ups of the green house sofa with hanging roses above or the garden under the snow. In his images, Vacquerie never parted from his own sense of humor: he pictured his cat sleep- ing as a pendant to a portrait of Hugo, during a reading of Phèdre tragedy.
Vacquerie also made as many as 43 self-portraits. These images show a clear influence of Victor Hugo’s portraits: the poses are strikingly similar. Many of Vac- querie’s self-portraits are grouped along with portraits he did of his family (his mother, sister, nephew, etc.) in an album he gave them (now kept at the Bibliothèque nationale de France).
Lastly, Vacquerie developed a clear interest in still life, a genre that set him apart from the rest of the Jer- sey Atelier and the Hugos’ photographic production.
Through photographs of casual objects (like Mrs. Hugo’s purse, or her bracelet on her arm), or small compositions (including the reproduction of the Hugo’s portrait or drawing done by the writer), Vacquerie gave a puzzling image of the family. This specific type of im- ages, though, was never broadly circulated, and seemed to have stayed with the closest relatives the Hugos and Vacquerie had.
In 1854, 9 000 francs (in gold) had been spent already on the project mentioned above, without any return. No publisher could be found who was willing to issue the work. All were afraid of the cost, and of the possible censorship the volume might trigger.
Vacquerie’s and Hugo’s sons pictures were all taken in Jersey, except a very few number when they moved to Guernsey, in 1855. Then, although a lab was installed at their new place, Hauteville House, the photographic production slackened. The text Vacquerie had written to accompany the pictures in Jersey et l’Archipel de la Manche was published in 1856 and 1863, Les miettes de l’Histoire. Some of the reprints he had done later on were used by Vacquerie to illustrate his books (mainly Profils et Grimaces), in order to turn them into person- alized gifts.
Dropping photography, he concentrated on journalism and literature, both of which he had never left behind.

Auguste Vacquerie (1819–1895), schoolmate and friend of Charles Hugo. After a classical curriculum, he was first a journalist and a literary critic, for French newspapers like Le Globe, l’Époque. Very early, he was introduced into the romantic coterie and became a devoted admirer of Victor Hugo. He became part of the family when his brother Charles Vacquerie married Leopoldine Hugo, the writer elder child. After their drowning, emotional ties grew even stronger between Vacquerie and the Hugos.
He joined Hugo’s sons and friend Paul Meurice venture in publishing L’Évènement (1848) where he was more concerned in literature than politics. When, in 1851, this paper re-named l’Avènement du Peuple saw most of its staff jailed, Vacquerie took it over. Then the four of them were fined and jailed at the Conciergerie in 1851, and the Evènement was shut down under Napoleon’s dictatorial regime (along with him was jailed his female cat Grise and again she was in Jersey where Vacquerie took a famous photograph of her). Sharing Hugos’political ideas, he fled from France, and lived in Jersey, Guernsey and Brussels. Part of his work, such as Profils et Grimaces (1856) or Les miettes de l’histoire (1863), and his many letters to his friends or sister in France depicted his life in Jersey with the Hugo family,
and showed his interest in photography. Yet, this hobby actually lasted just a few years.
In 1869, he founded Le Rappel with Rochefort, Paul Meurice, Charles et François-Victor Hugo, unrelentingly fighting against Napoleon III Empire. After the Empire fell, he backed the uprising of Paris (1871), as did V. Hugo and his sons.
He also wrote poetry (L’Enfer de l’Esprit, in 1840), a comedy (Souvent Femme Varie, in 1859) and dramas (Tragaldabas in 1848, Les Funérailles de l’Honneur, in 1861).
Back in France (around 1867), he continued his ac- tivities as a journalist, writer, and was chosen (along with Paul Meurice and Ernest Lefèvre, Vacquerie’s nephew) by Victor Hugo to overlook the publication of the poet’s entire work after his death.

VALENTA, EDUARD (1857–1937)
Valenta was a professor at the Hohere Graphische Bundes-Lehr- und Versuchsanstalt in Vienna from the late 1800s to 1909 where he codirected with Josef Eder, founding director and author of famously detailed The History of Photography (Geschichte der Photographie), and later succeeded him as the school’s head in 1923. The school is one of the oldest and most important with a specialty in photography and graphic arts in the world.
Valenta and Eder carried out and published in journals and annuals numerous studies of the spectra of elements and compounds, including many of the dyes important for photographic emulsions. They experimented with emulsions and published a number of photographic studies, including one of the earliest and most beautiful collections of highly detailed X-ray images (1896).
Valenta studied and published on the Lippmann pro- cess (1894–1912). Many of his Lippmann plates were held in the collection at the “Graphische.” Those were mostly in the nature of lab trials, and most were failures with poor or no color. These plates, along with 60,000 others in the Graphische’s collections, were donated to the Albertina in Vienna where they are in process of being cataloged.

VALENTINE, GEORGE D. (1852–1890)
Scottish photographer

George D. Valentine (1852–1890) was a son of the famous Scottish photographer James Valentine. He came to New Zealand in 1884 with the hope that the climate would improve his health. It seems that in the remaining years of his life, he was unable to suppress his sheer enthusiasm for photography and despite his fragile condition he committed himself to compiling an extensive series of landscape photographs. Beginning with views of Nelson where he initially settled, he then turned his attention to views of the Pink and White Ter- races and Lake Rotomahana, both pre and post erup- tion 1886–1887. Moving to Auckland he broadened his coverage by making a series based on a summer cruise in the Pacific Islands, photographing Tahiti, Tonga and the Cook Islands. In 1889 he was one of the first pho- tographers to descend into the Waitomo Caves at Otoro- hanga, an exploit which would have tested the physical endurance of a very fit person. Surprisingly none of his 12 × 10 inch views seem to have found their way back Scotland for his father1s firm to distribute. Two years after he died in Auckland, Valentine & Sons dispatched a photographer to New Zealand where he made a series which were used for tourist souvenirs and postcards. These were marked with the initials of J.V. as distinct from George Valentine1s photos who signed his prints with the initials of G.V.


UCHIDA KUICHI (1844–1875)
Japanese photographer

Uchida Kuichi was born in 1844 in Nagasaki, Japan. He may have first encountered photography through contact with the Dutch physician Johannes Pompe van Meerdervoort at the naval training school there. Uchida studied photography with Ueno Hikoma in the early 1860s. In 1865 Uchida and Morita Raizø opened the first photography studio in Osaka. Uchida moved his busi- ness to Yokohama in 1866, and then to Tokyo in 1869. Over the next several years he established a reputation as the finest portrait photographer in Tokyo. His fame resulted in a commission from the Department of the Imperial Household in 1872 to make the first official photograph of the Emperor Meiji. Uchida photographed the young emperor wearing traditional court dress. State authorities believed the image fed negative stereotypes of Japan as a regressive country, and commissioned another photograph in 1873 to show a more updated look. The later image, depicting the emperor in a West- ern military-style uniform and with a new short haircut, was widely distributed as the official imperial portrait. Uchida also traveled with the emperor throughout Japan in 1872, where he photographed the various locations visited as well as the public’s response to the imperial entourage. Uchida’s successful career was cut short when he died of tuberculosis in Tokyo in 1875.

UENO HIKOMA (1838–1904)
Ueno Hikoma was born in Nagasaki, Japan in 1838. His merchant father, Ueno Toshinojø, imported Japan’s first camera in 1848. Ueno’s interest in photography did not stem from this event, however, but from studying chemistry at the naval training school in Nagasaki under
Johannes Pompe van Meerdervoort, a Dutch naval doc- tor. Ueno was an intrepid student, constructing his own cameras from old telescope lenses and experimenting with various ways to make photographic chemicals, which were not yet readily available. In 1859 Ueno learned collodion wet-plate photography from the Swiss photographer Pierre Rossier, sent to Nagasaki by the London firm Negretti and Zambra. In 1862 Ueno published Seimikyoku hikkei (Chemist’s Handbook), co-authored with Horie Kuwajirø. It included an ap- pendix describing collodion wet-plate photography, Japan’s first manual on the process. Later that year, Ueno opened a studio in Nagasaki, one of Japan’s first, and he also began importing cameras and photographic supplies. Ueno became well known for both landscape and portrait photography. He photographed a number of important nineteenth-century figures, including former U.S. president Ulysses S. Grant. Other highlights of his career included assisting a team of Americans who came to Nagasaki in 1874 to photograph the transit of Venus across the sun, and photographing the battlefield during the Satsuma Rebellion in 1877. Ueno was one of Japan’s most successful early photographers, later open- ing branch studios in Vladistock, Shanghai, and Hong Kong in 1890 and 1891. He died in Nagasaki in 1904.

UKAI GYOKUSEN (1807–1887)
Japanese photographer
Ukai Gyokusen was the first Japan-born professional photographer, operating a studio in Edo (Tokyo) from 1860 or 1861 until 1867. Until recently his reputation has been overshadowed by Shimooka Renjo and Ueno Hikoma’s who nevertheless did not open their studios until 1862. It is strange that Ukai’s significance was forgotten since biographical details are carved on his gravestone in Yanaka Cemetery, Tokyo. Born into a wealthy samurai family, in Ishioka-shi, Ibaraki Prefec- ture, Ukai worked as a merchant in the sake business until 1831 when he decided to become a full-time art- ist. Nothing is then known until he decides to move to Yokohama in 1859 or 1860 with the intention of study- ing photography. His gravestone inscription confirms he consulted the American, Orrin Freeman, who had opened an ambrotype studio and was giving lessons. It then seems that he purchased, for a considerable sum, Freeman’s camera, equipment, and a series of lessons before opening a portrait studio in Edo. At his studio, named Eishin-do, he photographed over 200 members of the aristocracy. In 1879 he was employed by the Gov- ernment to photograph antiquities in western Japan. In 1883, Ukai unaccountably buried several hundred glass negatives adjacent to his final resting place in Yanaka Cemetery. (One of his ambrotypes is held by the Yoko- hama Archives of History, Yokohama.)

Nineteenth century interest in utilizing the power of photography in all forms of scientific endeavour led the Englishman,William Thompson (1822–1879), to speculate on the use of photography as an inexpensive method of assessing the damage to bridge piers in time of flood. In February 1856 Thompson succeeded in making a weak col- lodion negative of the sea floor of Weymouth Bay at a depth by lowering a box containing a 5 × 4 inch plate camera on a rope some eighteen feet to the bottom. Thompson described his methodology in a paper “On Taking Photographic Images Under Water,” published in the Journal of The Society Of Arts, May 9th, 1856, which is reproduced in Historical Diving Times, 19 (Summer 1997).
In 1866, the Frenchman, Ernest Bazin claimed to have made underwater photographs at his marine obser- vatory. Bazin used a form of diving cylinder to enable him to descend below water with electric lights to illu- minate his subject. However none of these images have survived and it appears that none were ever made public. While there are reports of photographs taken from a submarine by the German Wilhelm Bauer and various experiments by the Swiss F. A. Forel to determine the penetration of daylight through water by photographic means, the first major publication to utilise photography for the illustration of marine specimens was William Saville-Kent’s The Great Barrier Reef of Australia, its products and potentialities published in 1893. However Saville-Kent’s specimens were not photographed with an underwater apparatus.
The first systematic approaches to underwater pho- tography were commenced in 1886 the Frenchman
Louis Boutan (1859–1934) and his assistant Joseph David (1869–1922). Born in 1859, Boutan obtained his doctorate of science from the University of Paris in 1879. In 1880, at the time of the Melbourne Exposition, he was sent by the French Government to Australia to study the embryology of marsupials. He was appointed maître de conference at the University of Lille in 1886 before undertaking a mission to the Red Sea in 1890. In 1893 Boutan was appointed professor at the Arago Laboratories at Banyuls-sur-Mer, part of the University of Paris. By the end of that year Boutan had established the fundamentals of underwater photography.
Writing in The Century Illustrated Monthly Magazine in 1898, Boutan recalled that he was fascinated by the underwater landscape he found at Banyuls-sur-Mer when invited to use the Laboratory’s diving suit. He wrote “why, I asked myself, could I not succeed in mak- ing a photograph at the bottom of the sea?” In a note in Archives de Zoologie expérimentale et générale, Boutan described the principal features of his underwater photo- graphic apparatus, the plans for which had been devised by his brother Auguste, an engineer and manufactured by the firm of Alvergniat in Paris with anastigmat lenses by Darlot. These had the form of a rectangular metal box fixed to a metal tripod having adjustable legs, external controls for adjusting the shutter and diaphragm and changing the specially varnished Lumiere plates and a rubber balloon with which to adjust the buoyancy to the whole. One of these cameras was illustrated in the Century Magazine article together with several of Boutan’s underwater images.
Initially Boutan found that back-scattering of light and the lower contrast gave unsatisfactory images on his “isochromatic” plates. After considerable experimenta- tion he was able to obtain more satisfactory images by interposing a blue filter in front of the camera lens.
Several ingenious methods were employed by Boutan to illuminate his underwater scenes. In 1893 he collabo- rated with a French electrical engineer, M. Chaffour, to make the first flash bulb. Chaffour used a thick glass bottle, some 10cm in diameter, mounted with the neck down. He placed a coil of magnesium ribbon inside the jar before replacing the air with pure oxygen. An electric current was used to ignite the magnesium rib- bon, producing a very intense flash of light. This system was not without its disadvantages. When ignited, the magnesium produced a dense cloud of magnesium oxide vapour which not only reduced the light output but also coated the inner surface of the bottle. Moreover the high temperature produced at ignition frequently caused the bottles to explode, even underwater. Although only an experimental model, the Chaffour flash established the principles for all future flash bulbs while Boutan had produced the first underwater image made with flash.
A more reliable, if cumbersome, system of illumination was built by David for Boutan. An alcohol lamp was placed in a glass bell-jar secured to the top of a wooden barrel. An external reservoir of magnesium powder was connected to a metal tube placed just in front of the lens flame. Using a rubber bulb, Boutan was able to blow the magnesium powder into the flame to produce his flash illumination. A scale model of Boutan’s camera and the “barrel” flash is on permanent display at the Musée de la Plongée, Sanary-Sur-Mer, France. A later system utilised carbon-arc lamps power by banks of batteries.
Boutan described in some detail his methodology for making underwater images. Descending to the bottom in a diving suit, he selected the area to be photographed, then signalled to the dive boat for the apparatus to be sent down, stand first then on signal the camera box and illumination source. Once set up, Boutan then signalled that he had commenced the exposure and waited for a signal from the boat to tell him when the required time had elapsed.
In 1898 he published the first book on underwater photography: Photographie sous-marine et les progrès de la photographie, Schücher Frères, Paris. The following year Boutan obtained sharp images of underwater vegetation at night and, using battery- powered arc lamps, images of a plaque at a depth of 50 metres. The exhibition of slides of his underwater photographs at the Expositions Universelle, Paris in 1900 and publication by Charles Mendel of more images in La Photographie sous-marine, with text by Pierre Guichard, served to further Boutan’s reputation as the foremost underwater photographer of the time.

ELMER (1858–1943)
Manufacturer of ten million stereo cards and 300,000 stereo viewers a year (1901)

The Underwood brothers built a Stereoscopic produc- tion and sales organization that surpassed all that had preceded them. By learning the door to door selling techniques of B. W. Kilburn of Littleton, New Hamp- shire, the Underwoods took the lead in the creation of the world’s largest stereo view business. Even The Stereoscopic Company in Great Britain could not match their success.
Elmer and Bert Underwood, sons of the Reverend E. Underwood, were born in northern Illinois Elmer in 1859 and Bert in 1862.
Elmer started a publishing business there in 1879 whilst Bert worked in a grocery and then for the White Sewing Machine Company in Kansas City before becoming a sales agent for a medical book which he peddled from door-to-door throughout his assigned area on the edge of Indian Territory. A natural sales- man, Bert became known among the farmers as “that boy who sells a book to everyone:’ During his book selling trips in 1881, he met an agent for stereoscopic views and became convinced that if the merits of the then “out-of-date” stereoscopic views could be prop- erly presented to the public they would prove to be fast sellers. Ordering a stock of views and a stereoscope he began to formulate a system for selling them that proved immediately successful.
Bert’s sales grew so fast that within a few months he persuaded his brother to sell his publishing business and join him in expanding the stereo view business into other areas. At that time, the Underwoods were selling the stereo views published by Charles Bierstadt (Niagara Falls), J. F. Jarvis (Washington, D.C.) and the Littleton View Company (one of B. W. Kilburn’s competitors) in the sparsely settled areas west of the Mississippi. (Some of these early views have been found inscribed on the back “Sold by Underwood and Underwood, Ottawa, Kansas:’) In a year’s time the brothers had established their own group of sales agents (all trained in the Under- wood method) working in Missouri and Kansas.
The Underwoods directed this sales force from a small office in Ottawa, Kansas. Many of these agents were recruited from colleges and universities. Some earned enough during the summer months to pay their entire college expenses for the year.
As their business grew, they documented the system in a manual that taught their agents how to successfully sell stereo views. To learn just how these agents plied their craft, a copy of their Sales Manual for 1890 was examined at the Oliver Wendell Holmes Stereoscopic Research Library.
The Underwoods divided their sales effort into two parts—the canvassing and the delivery. Canvassing included gaining a hearing, creating a desire to buy and obtaining a small order for a stereoscope or views. Upon delivering the original order a week or two later, they made their major pitch to sell more views.
The manual took the new agent, step by step, through a typical sales call, telling them what to say and how to handle all objections. The agent was instructed to greet the person answering the door with: “I have something very beautiful I want to show you. It will take just a minute:’
No mention was made of the product they were selling. If the prospect hesitated, they added: “It is something new in this line, and I can show you much better and easier than I can tell you:’ If told there was no interest in buying anything they countered with: “Oh, I am only showing now and I have something so interesting I do like to show it. You can spare just a minute:’ After gaining entrance, the agent laid his case down and removed the stereoscope saying: “Of course you have a stereoscope:’ If the customer did not, the agent stated that they have never seen views through this type of glass. “Everyone says it is the finest lens they ever looked through:’ The important thing was to get the customer seated and to hold the scope. The manual advised the agents to insert each view into the scope before taking the preceding one out so the customer was always looking at something, the better to hold their attention.
They made each view as interesting as possible by pointing out the objects of value, beauty or novelty in each. For example, “Phoebe’s Arch, Palmer Lake, Colorado. Notice how far through that arch, across the landscape you can see. That farthest mountain is thirty miles from the arch. Isn’t it something wonderful to cover such distance in a view” Remember, the manual
advised the agent, “your customer will often see, in the views you show him, only what your words have the power to make him see. They credited the glass for the beautiful details and distances brought out in perfect relief. They dwelt on the power of the glass as a sale of the scope obviously produced a demand for views.
They attempted to close the sale by saying: “If I will bring you just as good a lens as this is in about two weeks, you will want one of them won’t you? This scope is only ninety cents and if the one I bring is not as good as this, don’t take it.” Price was only mentioned after they had shown a number of sample views.
The agent then advanced numerous reasons the cus- tomer should have a stereoscope in their home—they cost very little and yet are so interesting; if company comes they can help entertain themselves with a ste- reoscope and a collection of views; children read, hear people talk then study about places in the views; they can never visit all these places as it would cost hundreds of dollars to visit only a few and the stereoscopic views, as seen through a good glass, will give them a better idea than they can get in any other way.
The agent concluded with: “Well, I shall put you down for the glass, shall I not, as it’s only ninety cents:’ The order was written up for “Scope and Views” and the customer was told: “You see, 1 have put you down for a scope and left the views indefinite. When I bring around your scope I will have a fine collection of views and our $2.00 per dozen views are the finest in the country.”
If the customer already had a stereoscope, the agent switched the emphasis away from the lens, crediting all the fine effects to the superior quality of the clear sharp views, all from original negatives taken by the best view artists in the country. The agent worked prominent names into the sales pitch to influence the customer: “Dr. Jones liked that view very much. I have his order for a collection. The agents were told that lo- cal personal influences of this kind are impossible for anyone to resist entirely.
The experienced agents carried a small folder containing a list of prominent local people and their avocation who had purchased views. These were shown to the prospect with the comment: “Here is the Mayor you see, the Minister, the Postmaster, and of course, these Doctors, who have all purchased views for their collection:’ The great secret of moneymaking with views, it was emphasized, was to canvass their territory thoroughly—exhaustively. It was easier to build up the order if many of the customer’s neighbors were taking views. They were advised not to be easily put off as “NO, is not always an answer in canvassing any more than in courting. Persistence wins the day.
The manual also offered advice on how the agent should conduct himself while on the road. They ‘were admonished to find a good boarding place, keep the best of company and not talk politics and if a Christian, to go to church Sunday and make themselves at home in prayer-meetings or the Y.M.C.A. rooms. To be neat and clean in attire, to dress well and never boast of his business, only talking about his views when actually canvassing. (No mention of female agents has been found.)
When delivering the scope, it was important to once again get the customer seated to try it out. Views were shown in the same manner as when canvassing, having the customer decide on each view separately, laying aside those they wanted to keep. If the customer protested: “Oh, I have more than I can take now;’ the agent replied: “Why this is only a start—you have an opportunity to obtain the finest views that have ever been made and it will pay you to take advantage of it and get a good collection. Your scope is not so inter- esting without a nice collection. The more you get the better:’ The agent was reminded not to lower prices as that lowered the value of the goods in the minds of the patron. However, to clinch a large sale, the agent would offer a free stereoscope with an order for six dozen or more views!
In addition to their first class views, the agents carried a small number of copied views that they sold for three cents each. The purpose was to counter the customer’s objections that they could buy views cheaper elsewhere and to prove the superiority of their more expensive views. By downgrading these views with the comment: “These are copies. We carry them only for a cheap class of trade;’ they seldom had to show them. They also car- ried hand painted views and French transparencies with them that sold for 25 cents each.
Using these successful methods, Bert expanded their sales force into western Iowa, Nebraska, Dakota and Minnesota throughout 1884. At the same time, Elmer built the business in eastern Iowa, Illinois and Wiscon- sin. By the end of the year, they covered Kentucky Ten- nessee, Arkansas and Louisiana with their agents.
The following year, Elmer worked his way east into Pennsylvania and in a year and a half built the foundation of an immense business through the populous eastern and southeastern section of the country. Meanwhile, Bert crossed the Rockies, covering the Pacific Coast, from San Diego to Puget Sound, with agents.
The Underwoods claimed to have sent out 3,000 college students in one summer. Agents traveled by bicycle, or horse and buggy in farm country, and were sometimes invited, to spend the night with their last customer, paying for their room and board with stereo views. A few agents used their experiences with the Underwoods to go on to bigger and better things. One was James M. Davis, who became the exclusive Sales Agent for Kilburn stereo views. Another was B. L. Singley, founder of the Keystone View Company of
Meadville, Pennsylvania. Keystone, in time became a strong competitor to the Underwoods.
Outgrowing their single supply house in Ottawa, Kansas by 1887, they opened an office in Baltimore to supply all the territory east of the Mississippi. That same year they also secured control of the stereo views produced by Strohmeyer & Wyman. The combined ca- pacity of their four suppliers, Bierstadt, Jarvis, Littleton Views, and Strohmeyer & Wyman was ten million stereo views per year. A Canadian office was opened in 1888 to handle the large sales there.
Underwood and Underwood expanded into Europe in 1890 when Bert opened a branch in Liverpool, England. He personally ran the office for three years, creating a renewed interest in stereo views there. They moved their Baltimore office in 1891 to New York to better serve their growing sales overseas.
By 1894, they were selling their views wholesale or through agents in all European countries, Australia, New Zealand, South Africa, India, Japan, Cuba, Mexico and nearly every country in South America. In that year, the Underwoods shipped three million views to England retailing them for $2.00 a dozen. 160,000 stereoscopes were also sold there for $1.00 each.
Gradually the Underwood firm began to publish their own original views to supplement already established trade lists of their four suppliers. In 1891 Bert took les- sons in photography from M. Abel in Mentona, France. The excellent travel views of Italy Greece, the Holy Lands and Egypt, published under the U&U label, all were produced from Bert’s negatives.
While in Rome, Bert arranged to photograph Pope Pius X in stereo, producing a 12 card set on “The Pil- grimage to St. Peter s and the Vatican:’ After presenting a set to His Holiness, the firm received the following note from a Cardinal at the Vatican:
His Holiness Pope Pius X., wishes me to tell you how much He had admired the stereoscopic views which Messrs. Underwood & Underwood have kindly pre- sented to Him. As a token of His special appreciation of these very interesting photographs, His Holiness bids me send you in His name a silver medal together with His thanks.
It was not until 1897 that the company supplemented Bert’s work by employing their own full-time pho- tographers and using free-lance operators for specific assignments.
By 1901, the firm had finalized the design of the U&U logo on their stereo views and were publishing over 25,000 views a day of their own. They also sold 300,000 stereoscopes a year—a prodigious output that made the firm the largest of its kind in the world. Their stereoscope supplier was Henry E. Richmond, a native of Bennington, Vermont, who had established a stereoscope factory for the trade around 1890, in the small town of Westwood, New Jersey, population 838. The factory was just fifteen miles from mid-town Man- hattan and employed about thirty people. His factory ground the lenses, cut out the wooden parts, stamped and shaped the aluminum hoods, binding the edges with velvet. Those he made for the Underwoods were stamped on the hood with the words “Sun-Sculpture” surrounded by their rising sun trademark. The factory was a two-story building with a water tower that sup- plied water to the town of Westwood. U&U apparently bought the factory around 1901 and retained Richmond as their Manager through at least 1914.
They also purchased a factory from Strohmeyer & Wyman in Arlington, New Jersey, eight miles from Manhattan, that produced both stereoscopes and views. Seventy persons were employed there in 1906. One of the Underwoods’ more famous staff photographers, James Ricalton, was from Maplewood, New Jersey, just a few miles from their factory in Arlington. Their Westwood factory produced stereoscopes exclusively, employing 10 men and 20 women the same year.
At the turn of the century the Underwoods introduced their unique boxed set of views—a sequence of views that simulated a tour of the country depicted. Some views had captions in six languages printed on the back. A descriptive guidebook accompanied the views which included a map showing the exact location and boundaries of the views in the set.
U&U Guide Books were edited by some of the most eminent scholars of the day. The popularity of these travel sets and guidebooks made it difficult for smaller companies to compete and was responsible for some of them closing up shop and selling their negatives to the Underwoods, which grew even bigger as a result. Their boxed sets and books became immensely popular, form- ing the bulk of their output for the next 15 years. Their sales literature pointed out—“The Underwood Travel System is largely mental. It provides Travel not for the body, but for the mind- but travel that is none the less real on that account. It makes it possible for one to see as if one were present there in body—in fact to feel oneself present—and to know accurately famous scenes and places thousands of miles away without moving his body from his armchair in his comfortable corner; indeed, it enables him to take up one standpoint and then another with reference to them and so see them as a whole, and to study them minutely just as one would on a visit to the places in the ordinary expensive way.”
By 1910 they had 300 different stereo view sets for sale and had diversified into the new field of News photography. As stereo views declined in popularity their News Division grew. They ceased production of all stereo views in 1920, selling their stereo negatives to the Keystone View Company which continued to produce
Underwood inspired travel sets, primarily to schools. Shortly after the Underwoods retired, the company was reorganized as Underwood & Underwood News Photos, Inc. In 1943 Bert Underwood died in Arizona. Four years later, Elmer died in St. Petersburg, Florida.
Since 1978, much of the Underwood and Underwood archives have been housed within the University of California Riverside (UCR). This is as part of a 30 ton collection of 350,000 original stereoscopic negatives, 140,000 cards, record books, and salesman cataloques, primarily from Underwood and Underwood, The Key- stone View company, B.W. Kilburn, H.C. White, and The American Stereoscopic company.
Underwood & Underwood images are a vast and invaluable resource showing the modernization of the world, brought to life by the power of Stereoscopic viewing.